Said the King:
parasya vishNoh ISasya mAyinAm api mohinIm I
mAyAm veditum icchAmaha Bagavantah bruvantu nah II
parasya - of the highest Lord NaaraayaNa; vishNoh - of VishNu; Isaya - of master; mAyinAm - wise people; api - even; mohinIm - fascinating deluding, bewildering; mAyAm - supernatural power; veditum - to understand, to have a correct notion of, to know; icchAmaha - desire, (we) seek for, wish or long for; Bagavantah - of Lord Naaraayana; Bruvantu - may tell us; nah - for us;
We wish to understand the Supreme power fascinating even wise men, of Lord Master Vishnu. May you please tell us.
na anutrupye jushan yushmad vacah hari kathA amritam I
samsAra tapa nishtapah martyah tat tApa Beshajam II
na - not; anutrupye - satisfy, satiate; jushan - enjoying, being fond of, pleasing; yushmad - your; vacah - sayings, speaking, talking; Hari - of Hari; kathA - story; amritam - nectar; samsAra - mundane existence, course of worldly life; tApa - heat, misery, affliction; nishtaptah - scorched, burnt; martyah - person, the body; tat - that; Beshajam - medicine, healing, remedy;
Your narrating the nectar of stories about Hari does not satisfy me nor does it heal the person scorched by the heat of samsara.
antariksha uvAcha - antariksha said:
eBih ButAni BUtAtma mahA Buja I
sasarja ucchAvacAni Adan svayam Atma prasiddhaye II
eBih - by these; BUtAni - beings; BUtAtma - lord Vishnu, the creator; mahABUtah - by the 24 principles; mahABuja - powerful; sasrja - created; ucchAvacAni - various, diverse; Adan - at the beginning; svayam - by himself, oneself; Atma - his own self; prasiddhaye - for accomplishments, for fulfilment;
At the beginning Lord Vishnu created different beings using the five gross elements for the fulfilment of his own will, O King!
mahaButyh sasage - created by the five gross elements. The five elements Akasa, wind, water fire and earth constitute nature together with mahat, ahamkara, buddhi, manas and other 24 principles first and with them the universal egg, entered into them.
ucchAvachani BUtAni - different beings
svayamAtma prasiddhaye - for the fulfilment of His will
evam sristhThvA sa BUtAni sthvishthyh pancaDAtuBih I
ekadhA daSadhA AtmAnam viBajan jushate guNAn II
evam - thus, in this way; sristhvA - having created; sa - along with; sthvisThyh - by great or large, gross form; pancha - five; dhAtuBih - organs of senses, primary elements (Bhu Apa, anala, Vayu, AkAsa); ekadhA - singly, at the same time, together, at once; daSadhA - in ten ways or spirits; AtmAnam - his self; viBajan - having divided, having distributed, having separated; jushate - enjoys, undergoes; guNAn - triad of sattva, rajas, tamas, qualities, effects and joy of effect of qualities; ekadhA - in the form of controller of mind; daSadha - in the form of controller of ten organs of sense.
Thus having created the beings with the gross five elements, having divided himself as one controller of mind and five organs of sense, He enjoys the good effects.
guNyh guNAn saBunjAna Atma pradyotityh praBuh I
manya mAna idam srushTham AtmAnam iha sajjate II
guNyh - by (with) the organs of sense; guNAn - the effect of, qualities; sa - along with; BujAna - being experienced; Atma - by self; pradyotityh - casts towards, directed towards; praBuh - the master; manyamAna - looking upon, regarding, considering; idam - this; srushtham - created; AtmAnam - of himself; iha - hence, in this world; sajjate - sticks, clings, adheres, be attached;
The Lord, experiencing the senses and sense organs, clings to the world here considering it to have been created by himself.
karmANi karmaBih kurvan sa nimittAni dehAbrit I
tat karmaPalam grihNan Bramati iha sukha itaram II
karmAni - actions or deeds; karmaBih - by actions; kurvan - doing; sa - he; nimittAni - causes, motives, dehaBrit - embodied self - living creature (jeevAtma); tat - that, respective; karmaPalam - consequence of actions or deeds, fruit or recompense of actions resulting from previous acts or acts in former life; grihNam - accepting, receiving; Bramati - moves around; iha - in this world; sukhe - pleasure; itaram - pain;
The embodied self having motivated actions moves around here in this world accepting their results, happy or otherwise.
ittham karmagatih gacchau bahu aBadrAvahah pumAn I
ABUta samplavAt svarga pralayam aSnute avaSah II
ittham - in this way; karmagatih - motion, moving of action; gacchau - going on; bahu - many, numerous; aBadra - inauspicious, sorrowful, soil, sin; Avahah - bringing on; ABUta - produced, created things or universe; svarga - of heaven; pralayam - reabsorbs; dissolution; aSnute - obtains, comes to; avaSah - without free will, unwittingly; pumAn - the Being;
Thus, going along with the fruits of evil actions obtains swarga or others of creation willing or otherwise.
dhAtuh upaplava Asanne vyaktam dravyaguNAtmakam I
anAdi nidhanah kAlah hi avyaktAya vikarshati II
dhAtuh - the five elements (earth, fire, water, wind and space); upaplava - disturbance; Asanne - reached, obtained; vyaktam - manifested, evolved, dravya - material; guNa - qualities; dravya guNAtmakam - made of material (five elements and their respective qualities like shape (rupa) savor (rasa) odor (gudha) sound (sabda) and tangibility (sparsha) and their respective sense organs);anAdi - without beginning; nidhanam - destruction; kAlah - vishnu; hi - only; avyaktAya - for non-manifest; vikarshati - draws after;
When the disturbance of five elements is arrived the universe made up of five elements, their respective qualities and sense organs is drawn towards the Lord of no beginning or end, Vishnu only.
Sata varsham anAvishthih Bavishyati ulbaNa Buvi I
Tat kAla upacita ushNa arkah lokAntrIn pratapishyati II
Sata - hundred; varsham - years; anAvrishthih - painless; ulbaNa - excessive, immense; Bavishyati - (it) will be; Buri - in the world; tat - that; kAla - season, appropriate time; upacita - increasing; ushNa - heat; arkah - sun; lokAn - worlds; trIn - thee; pratapishyati - burns, torments;
For hundred years there will be immense drought in the world and the heat at that time will increase, the heat from the sun will torment the three worlds.
pAtAla talam AraByu sankarshaNa mukhha analah I
dahan Urdhva Sikhah vishvag vardhate vAyuna Iritah II
pAtAlatalam - the lowest of seven worlds below; AraBya - beginning from; sankarshaNa - of Sankarshana Naaraayana; mukha - from the mouth; analah - fire; dahan - burning; Urdhva - rising up; Shkhah - flame; vishvag - turned everywhere in all directions, all pervading; vardhate - increases; be extended; vAyunA - by wind, god of wind; Iritah - excited;
The drawing faces of fire starting from the mouth of Samkarshana, patala world burning and raising flame in all directions increases excited by the wind.
samvartakah meghnagaNah varshati sma Satam samAh I
dhArABih hasti hastaBih lIyate salile virAt II
samvartaka - rolling up, destroying at the world; megha - cloud; yuNah - multitudes; varshati sma - rained; Satam - hundred; samAh - years; dhArABih - by rains, by jets; hasti - elephant; hastaBih - trunks of elephants; lIyate - extincts, absorbed, resolved; salile - in water; virAt - the universe;
Multitudes of clouds of destruction rains for a hundred years with jets of water as big as the trunks of elephants, and this dissolves the universe.
tatah virAjam utsrijya vyrAjah purushah nripa I
Avyaktam viSate sUkshmam nirindhana iva analah II
tatah - then; virAjam - the universe; utsrijya - having left; vyrAjah - god moving in the universe; purushah - the Lord; nripa - O KIng!; avyaktam - the supreme being; visate - settles down; sUkshamam - subtle; niridhan - fuel less, iva - like; analah - fire;
Then having left the universe dissolved in water, the supreme person settles down like the subtle fire short of fuel.
vAriNA hrita gandhA BUh salilatvAya kalpate I
salilam tad hrita rasam jyOtishvAya upakalpate II
hrita rUpam tu tamasA vAyau jyotih pralIyate I
hita sparSah avakAsena vAyuh naBasi lIyate II
vAriNA - by water; hrita - having carried away, taken away; gandhA - smell, odor being the property of earth; BUh - the earth; salilatvaya - nature of liquid on water; kalpate - results in, tends to be; salilam - water; tad - that; rasam - liquidity, fluidity; jyotishtvAya - for the nature of being bright; upakalpate - becomes, to be fit; rUpam - form, figure; tu - expletive; tamasA - by darkness; vAyuh - wind; jyotih - light; pralIyate - becomes dissolved or reabsorbed, disappears; sparsha - touch, sense of touch; avakAseno - by ether; naBusi - in the sky; lIyate;
Beset of smell by water, the earth comes to be in the nature of water, water without the fluidity comes to be in the nature of light. Bereft of form by darkness, the wind gets dissolved in light. Having lost the touch by ether, the wind gets absorbed in the sky.
kAla AtmanA hrita guNam naBa Atmani lIyate I
indriyANi manah buddhih sah vykArikyh nrupa II
praviSanti hi ahamkAram svaguNyah aham Atmani II
kAlAtmanah - by the supreme spirit being the destroyer of universe; kAlah - the principal personification of destruction;
Atma - the supreme spirit; hrita - having been taken away or carried away; guNAm - the respective qualities of elements; naBa - the sky; Atmani - the supreme spirit Naaraayana; lIyate - absorbed; inndriyAni - the organs of sense; manah - mind, internal organ of cognition; buddhih - intellect, judgement; sah - together; vykArikayah - of those (devas) who preside over modifications; praviSanti - enter or go into; hi - of course; ahamkAram - the third of the eight sources of creation, self consciousness; svaguNyh - by its own nature; aham - self; Atmani - into the supreme spirit;
The water or sky representing the tamas consciousness having the qualities taken away is absorbed into the supreme. The sense organs mind judgement of enlightened consciousness and respective gods of modification enter into the source of creation or self consciousness which enter into Naaraayana along with those qualities.
eshA mAyA Bagavatah sarg sthiti antakAriNI I
trivarNA varNitA asmABih kim BUyah srotum icchasi II
eshA- these (are); mAyA - the great will; Bagavatah - of Lord; sarga - creation of world or nature or universe; sthiti - preservation, maintenance, sustenance; antakAriNi - (anta - end, dissolution, kArini - causing destruction or dissolution); trivarNa - in the three qualities; varNita - described; asmABih - by us; kim - what; BUyah - further, again; srotum - to hear; icchasi - (you) desire;
The three qualities of the Lord in creating preserving and destroying have been described by us. What more do you desire to hear?
rAjovAca - the king said:
yathA etam aiSwarIm mAyAm dustarAm akrita AtmaBih I
taranti anjah sthUla dhiyah maharsha idam ucyatAm II
yathA - in what way, how in order that?; etam - He (the Being); aiSwarIm - of divine; mAyAm - power; dustaram - unsurmountable, difficult to be crossed; akrita - ignorant; AtmaBih - by beings; taranti - cross over; anjah - quickly, instantly; sthUla - dull, stupid; dhiyah - understanding, intelligence, knowledge; maharsha - O maharshi!; idam - this; ucyatAm - maybe spoken to;
How can dull and ignorant beings cross this binding power of the Lord? Please speak to us.
prabuddha uvAca - the wise man said:
karmANi AraBamANAnAm dukha hatgi sukhAya ca I
pasyet pAkaviparyAsam mithunIcAriNAm nriNAm II
karmANi - actions; AraBamANAnAm - being commenced or begun; dukha - of pain; hatgi - for removal, for destroying; sukhAya - for happiness; ca - and; paSyet- should learn; pAkaviparyAsam - pAka - growing; viparyAsam - perversive; mithunI - pair of male and female; cAriNAm - living or moving; nriNAm - of men;
Before commencing actions the perverse nature of human coupling should be found out for removal of pain and for happiness. Non attachment to worldly things is the first step.
nitya Artidena vittena durlaBena Atma mrityunA I
griha Apatya Apta paSuBih kA prItih sAdhityh calyh II
nitya - continued; Artidena - by giving mental agony, causing pain; vittena - wealth, money; durlaBena - by difficulty; Atma - of one’s own; mrityuh - by death; prItih - satisfaction; ka - what; griha - house, dwelling; Apatya - offspring, progeny; Apta - relative, friend; paSuBih - by cattle; sAdhitaih - obtained, accomplished, calaih - transitory, perishable things; ka - what; prItih - happiness;
What happiness is there by those giving continued agony of wealth and the difficult knowledge of our own death and perishable house, progeny, friends and cattle obtained. There is no happiness in any of these.
evam lokam param vidyAt naSvaram karmanimittam I
Atulya atiSaya dhvamsAt yathA maNdaa vartinAm II
evam - thus; lokam - the world; parAm - situated beyond, situated on the other side; vidyAt - should be understood, should be known; naSvaram - transitory, transient, perishable; karma nimittam - cause for action, motive for action; atulya - unequalled; atiSaya - very great, abundant; dhvamsAt - of destruction; yathA - like; maNdala vartinAm - going round (mandala - circular; maNdala - in battle, vartinAm - living, remaining);
Thus this world beyond should be understood to be resulting from action, perishable, very great and destructive like those on the battlefield.
tasmAd gurum prapadyeta jignyAsu Sreyaa uttamam I
SAbde pare ca nishNAtum brahmaN upSamAyanam II
tasmAd - therefore; gurum - teacher, spiritual preceptor; prapadyeta - be approached; jignyAsuh - desiring knowledge, desiring absolution; Sreya - blessing, bliss; uttamam - the highest, lord Vishnu; SAbde - in the Veda; pare - the superior; ca - and; nishNAtum - well versed; brahmaN - devoted to sacred knowledge, pious; upaSamAyanam - one who obtains tranquility of the mind;
Therefore, a spiritual preceptor (teacher) well versed n the supreme Vedas and pious may be approached by one desirous of attainment of bliss or Lord VishNu.
tatra BAgavatAm dharmAn Sikshet guru Atma daivatah I
amAyayA anivrityA catushyet AtmA Atmadah harih II
tatra - there; BAgavatAn - of devotees; dharmAn - duties and obligations; sikshet - should learn, acquire knowledge, study; gugu - of preceptor; Atma - soul; daivatah - deity; amAyayA - sincerely, honestly; anuvrityA - by respect, obediently; ca - also; tushyet -should please; Atma - supreme spirit; Atmadah - giver of life; harih- Lord Vishnu;
Devotees should learn the duties and obligations from the preceptor who is Lord NaaraayaNa, and perform them sincerely and obediently to please Lord Hari the giver of life.
sarvatah manasah asangam Adau sangam ca sAdhushu I
dayAm maitrIm praSrayam ca Bhuteshu addhA yathA ucitam II
sarvatah - from all and every; manasah - by all minds; asangam - non attachment; Adau - at the beginning, primarily; sangam - attachment; ca - also; sAdhushu - in virtuous people; dayAm - kindness; maitrIm - friendship; praSrayam - humility, modesty; ca - and; Buteshu - in the living beings; addhA - truly; yathA - as it fits; ucitam - fit, proper;
At the beginning detachment from all by will and attachment to virtuous people, kindness, friendliness and humility towards all beings true and proper should be observed.
Sancam tapah titikhAm ca maunam swAdhyayam Arjavan I
brahma caryanahimsam ca samatvam dvandva sangnayoh II
Sancham - purity, uprightness, honesty; tapah - penance, meditation; titiksha - forbearance, endurance; ca - and; maunam - silence, holding one’s tongue, or speech; svAdhyAyam - study of Vedas and scriptures; Arjavam - sincerity, openheartedness; brahmacaryam - celibacy, religious studentship; ahimsA - harmlessness, abstaining from killing or giving pain to others without thought word or deed; ca - also; samatvam - equanimity; dvandva - couple of opposite conditions or qualities such as sukha dukha stoshNa, etc; sangnyayoh - of he consciousness, coming to one’s senses, mind;
Purity, penance, forbearance, silence, study of Vedas and scriptures, sincerity, celibacy, abstinence from causing pain to others by thought word or deed, and also equanimity in the senses and experiences.
sarvatra Atma Iswara anvIkshAm kaivalyana aniketanam I
vivikta chIra vasanam santosham yena kena chit II
sarvatra - everywhere, in all places, in all places, at all times; Atma - NaaraayaNa; Iswara - power, exposition to the lord’s power; anvIkshAm - keeping looking for, keep in view; kaivalyam - perfect isolation, detachment from all other connections; aniketanam - being homeless, without habitation; vivikta - kept apart, separated, alone; chIra vasanam - clothing, garment; santosham - contentment, joy; yena - by which; kena - by whatever; cit - mind, thought;
Everywhere and at all times looking up to the power of Lord Vishnu isolated by clothing and thought of contentment by whichever and whatever way.
sraddhAm BAgavate SAstre anindAm anyatra ca api hi I
manovAkkyAya (mano vAk kAya) daNdam satyam sama doman api II
sraddhAm - faith, belief, trust; BAgavate - of BAgavate; sastre - the scriptures, Veda; BAgavata sastre- scruotures relating to Lord and the Vedas; anindAm - no reproach; anyatra - in other teachings; ca api hi - and even sayings from unqualified; manas - by mind or thought; vAk - by talk, by mouth; kAya - by body; daNdam - restraint, control; satyam - speaking truth, sincerity; sama - tranquility, calmness, absence of passion; damam - self restraint, self command; api hi - even, also;
Faith in the scripture and Vedas relating to Vishnu without reproach to other teachings even, restraint of mind, speech and action, speaking truth only, quietude of tranquility and self control or self command.
SravaNam kIrtanam dhyAnam hareh adButa karmaNah I
janma karma guNANAm ca tad arthe akhila ceshtitam II
SravaNam - hearing, Vedas; kIrtanam - singing in praise of, narrating; dhyAnam - meditation, contemplation; hareh - of Hari; adButa - marvelous, wonderful; karmaNah - deeds, actions; janma - birth, origin; karma -deeds and consequences; guNANAm - excellent qualities; ca - and; tad - that; artha - for that; akhila - all and every; ceshtitam - motions, doing, behavior, action;
Hearing, narrating and meditation about the marvelous deeds of Hari and his birth, actions and excellent qualities, and doing everything for that.
ishTham dattam tapah japtam pUrtam yatca Atmanah priyam I
dArAn sutAn grihAn prANAn parsmai sannivedayet II
ishTham - sacrifice; dattam - gift, donation, what is given; tapah - penance; japtam - what is repeated internally, uttered in a low voice, muttered prayers; pUrtam - act of pious liberality (such as feeding brAhman, digging wells); yat - whatever; Atmanah - for the Lord; priyam - own, dear; dAran - wives; sutAn - sons, offspring; grihAn - dwellings; prANAn - life, vital breaths; parasmail - for the lord above; sannivedayet - offer completely.
Sacrifice, given away, penance, meditation, religious acts of liberality and whatever is dear to the Lord, wife, son, dwellings, vital breaths, should all be offered to the Lord.
evam krishna Atma natheshu manshyeshu ca sauhridam I
paricaaryAm ca uBayatra mahatsu nrishu sAdhushu II
evam - in this way; krishna Atma nAtheshu - krishna, AtmanA - of one’s self; nAthah - Lord, possessor, protector, krishna Atma NAthau - in those whom Krishna is possessor and protector; manushyeshu - amongst humans; ca - also; sauhridam - good feeling, towards friendship; paricaryAm - serving, devotion, worship; ca - also; uBayatra - at both; mahatsu - in creator Brahma; nrishu - beings; sAdhushu - sages, devotees;
One should develop friendships towards those who have accepted Sri Krishna as their Lord. one should also engage in service towards all living beings including sages and devotees of the Lord.
paraspara anukathanam pAvanam Bagavad yaSah I
mithah ratih mithah tushtihi nivrittih mitha Atmanah II
paraspara - mutual, each other; anukathanam - discourse, conversation; pAvanam - sacred, holy, pure; Bagavad - of the lord; yaSah - renown, fame; mithah - mutual; ratih - delight, fondness for; tushtih - contentment, satisfaction, nivruttih - ceasing from worldly acts, Atmanah - of one’s self;
Mutual discourses about Hari and his fame are sacred. These discussions result in delight and contentment and the ceasing of pain caused by worldly activities in which one indulges.
samantah smArayautah ca mitha aghaugha haram harim I
Baktah sanjAtaya BaktyA biBrat utpulakAm tanum II
samantah - whole, entire, all; smArayantah - calling to mind; ca - and; mitha - together with; agha - of sins; ogha - flood, heap; haram - removing, taking away; harim - NaaraayaNa; BaktAh - devotees; sanjAtaya - by growing, by arising; BaktyA - by devotion; biBrat - experiencing, holding; utpulakam - thrilling, joyful, bristling; tanum - body;
Devotees constantly remember and recall the glories of Naaraayana while talking among themselves. This enables them to remove their sins, and also helps them experience the ecstasy resulting from devotion.
kvacit rudanti acyuta cintayA kvacit hasanti nandanti vadanti alaukikah I
nrityanti gAyanti anuSIlayanti ajam Bavanti tUshNIm param etya nirvutAh II
kvacit - some (devotees); rudanti - weep, cry, howl; acyuta - of Hari; cintayA - anxious thought about; hasanti - laugh continuously; nandanti - rejoice, be delighted, be satisfied; vadanti - raise voice and sing; alaukikah - not relating to this world, unusual; nrityanti - dance about; gAyanti - sing in praise of; anuSIlayanti - practise; ajam - Naaraayana; Bavanti - become; tUshNIm - be silent, not speaking, quiet; param - supreme; etya - having approached, having come near; nirvrutAh - accomplished;
Some cry out with the thought of Acyuta, some laugh and rejoice and sing loudly with supernatural ecstasy, some dance and sing and practise and imitate Naaraayana, and some become silent and quiet when they have approached the experience of God.
iti BAgavatAm dharmAn Sikshan BaktyA tad uththayA I
nArAyaNa parah mAyAm anjah tarati dustaram II
iti - thus; BAgavatAn dharmAn - the daily conduct of devotees; Sikshan - learning; BaktyA - by devotion; tad - that; uththayA - raised; nArAyaNa - parah - supreme; mayAm - supernatural power; anjah - instantly, quickly; tarati - cross over; dustaram - unconquerable, irresistable (binding to samsara);
Thus by learning the duties and conduct of devotion to NaaraayaNa, the devotees are able to cross over the irresistible samsAra. This is enabled by the Supreme Power.
rAja uvAca - the king said:
nArAyaNa aBidhAnasya brahmaNah paramAtmanah I
nishThAm arhatha nah vaktum yUynuhi brahmavittamAh II
aBidhAnasya - of the name; brahmaNah - of God, Lord; paramAtmanah - of the supreme soul; nisThAm - attachment, conclusion; arhatha - be obliged; vaktum - to say; yuyam - you; brahmavittamAh - best of those knowing Brahman;
You are the best of those who knows Brahman of the name of NaaraayaNa, the most superior one to teach us about the attachment to the Lord.
pippalAyana uvAca - PippalAyana said:
sthiti udBava pralaya hetuh ahetuh asya yah swapna jAgara sushiptishu sau bahisca I
deha indriyA suhridayAni caranti yena sanjIvitAni tadvyhi param narendra II
sthiti - continued existence; udBava - coming to existence; pralaya - dissolution, reabsorption; hetuh - motive, cause of, reason for; ahetuh - absence of, cause or reason; asya - of Him; yah - who; swapna - in dreams; jAgara - awakefulness; sushipti - state of sleep or deep sleep; sau - remaining; bahi - outside; ca - also; deha - in body; indriya - the faculty of senses or sense organs; hridayAni - mind, seat of feelings and sensations; caranti - (they) move, live, be engaged, to continue performing or being; yena - by which; sanjIvitAni - live, exist, animated; tad - that; vyhi - in reality, truly; param - the supreme; narendra - O King!;
O King! The one who is the cause or non cause of existence, the coming into existence as well as dissolution, the one who keeps the body, faculties of the senses and seat of feelings, the one who is in our state of wakefulness or in sleep and dreams, the one who exists in all of this is that Supreme lord of all.
na enam manah viSati rAga cakshuh AtmA prANa indriyANi ca yathA analam arcishah swAh I
sabda api abodhaka nishedhatayA Atma mUlam artha uktam Aha ydrite na nishedhya siddhah II
na - not; enam - into this; manah - mind, thought; viSati - enters, pervade, penetrate, come into possession; vAguta - vAk - speech, words; uta - indeed; cakshuh - eyes; Atma - soul; prANa - lift breath, vital breath; indriyAni - faculties of senses; ca - also; yathA - as; analam - fire; arcishah - flames; swAh - of their own; sabda - Vedas, expression, Om, voice, sound; abodhaka - not awakening not apprising; nishedhataya - by prohibition, preventing, contradiction, negation, denial; Atma - of supreme; mUlam - origin, root, cause, commencement; arthata - fact, reality, truth; uktam - was said, was spoken, was uttered; aha - (he) says, speaks; yad - which; rite- expressly, properly, very; na - not; nishedhya - to be kept back, to be prohibited; siddhah - establishment of truth;
Naaraayana is not known by mind, speech, eye, soul, life or the faculties of the senses. It is like flames are not known by their own fire. Even the ear is not apprising of the origin and commencement by contradiction. What is said to be the truth is not established by non contradiction. The parts of the body are presided by various deities:
Manas - Rudra; vAguta - Saraswati; cakshu - Sun; Atma - creator or four faced Brahma; wind - Vayu; Aha - Lakshmi the consort of Vishnu; sabda - the Vedas; nirdosha sabda - Lakshmi; indriyani - Indra; prAnch - presiding deity. Even the presiding deities do not comprehend Naaraayana without His grace.
sattvam rajah tamah iti trivrit ekam Adau sUtram mahAn aham iti pravadanti Ivam I
grAna kriyA artha Phala rUpa tayA uru Sakti brahmA eva BAti sad asad ca tayoh param yat II
sattvam - quality of goodness and purity; rajah - passion and emotion; tamah - darkness or ignorance; iti - as; trivrit - triple, consisting of three, threefold; ekam - one; Adau - in the beginning; sUtram - that which holds together, wind, Prana; mahAn - Rudra, the great principle, Buddhi, intellect or intellectual principle; Aham - ahankara, self- consciousness and manas (mind); pravadanti - (they) pronounce, declare speak out, say; jIvam - living being, life;
gnAna - knowledge, cognizance; kriyA - action, activity, work; artha - object, purpose, causation, aim, motive, reason; phala - result, consequence; rupA - appearance, figure; tayoh - of their, for their; uruSakti - the great power, great might, energy, ability, capability; brahmA - Supreme; eva - only as; BAti - appears as, seem, shines forth, show; sad - sat - existing, really is, true being; asat - not existing, untrue, unreal; ca - also; tayoh - of them; param - higher, superior; yat - which is;
Special meanings of certain words in the above sloka:
sUtram - wind god; mahAn - the creator Brahma; aham - Rudra; gnAna kriyAh - the faculties of cognizance and action; artha - sound and other qualities of faculties; phalam - happiness and misery; sadasat - action and motive;
Comment of AcArya:
They say, goodness and purity (sattva) passion and emotion (rajas) and darkness and ignorance (tamas) are the three folds of one in the beginning (nature) along with life breath (prana), intellect (mahAn) and self consciousness and ego (aham or ahamkara) is living being. The great energy of knowledge, action,causation and consequence appears in the form of supreme Brahman only. The existing and non existing reality of Supreme Naaraayana is higher than that.
One who desires emancipation should understand what is wisdom (gnana) and what is ignorance (agyAna). Some say body of living consisting three folds of goodness, passion and ignorance appears to be God. some others say the deities wind god (Vayu), creator Brahma (mahan) and ahamkara (Rudra) appear to be God. but that one reality existing and non existing as great energy of intellect, action, causation and effect is the higher Supreme Naaraayana.
Reference may be made to Sruti (Gita) that
vidyAm ca avidyAm ca yah tad veda uBayam saha I
avidyayA mrityum tIrtvA vidyayA amritam aSnute II
One should know wisdom and ignorance together. By ignorance having crossed over the dying, immortality is attained by wisdom.
na asau jajAna na janishyati na edhate asau na kshIyate sa ca na viddhyati cAriNA sri I
sarvatra SaSvat anapAyu upalaBdhi mAtram prANah yatha indriyabalena vikalpitam sat II
jajAna - was born; janishyati - will bring forth; edhate - increases; kshIyate - be diminished, decreases,; viddhyati - ceases to be; cAriNa - wandering about, living, being, wanderers, movers; sarvatra - everywhere, always, all times; SaSvat - all, every, always, ever, forthwith, anapAyu - constant in the same state, invariable; upalaBdhi - perception, observation, knowledge, appearance, perceptible, intelligible; mAtram- size, measure, quantity; prANah - life breath; yatha - in which manner, as like; indriya - organs of sense, power of the senses; balena - by power, by force; vikalpitam - (divided, manifold, prepared, arranged), division, arrangements; sat - truth, NaaraayaNa - the Lord;
Naaraayana is not limited by time present, past or future, nor was he born or brought forth. He does not increase, or decrease, is not affected by any moving beings. He is always everywhere, unchanging and is to the extent of one’s conception only like life breath, to the extent of the senses.
andeshu peSishu tarushu avanisthiteshu prANena jIva upadhAvati tatra tatra I
channe matIndriya guNa ahami ca prasupte kUtashtha Asa yamrite tad anusmritIrna II
andeshu - in eggs, in those born out of the egg; peSishu - in pieces of flesh, egg, muscle, foetus; tarushu - in trees; avanisthiteshu - those living in rivers, the earth, those born out of heat vapor, beings of earth or river beds, and streams like fish, etc.; prANena - by life; jIva - life, being, creature; upadhAvati - runs near, approach hastily, has recourse for, assistance; tatra tatra - everywhere, every place; channe - in disguise, in secret; mati - mind, understanding, intelligence, sense, esteem, respect; indriya - faculty of sense; gune - in qualities of sense; ahami - in the approach of day; prasupte - in sleep, quiet, inactive, asleep; kUtastha - standing in a multitude of or in the midst of, unchangeable, uniform, immovable; Asa - thrown or cast; yam - whom; rite - really; tad - that; anusmritIrna - cherished recollection, recalling some idea to the exclusion of all others; na - not;
He enters everywhere in beings born out of an egg, foetus, earth and water, and sweet and vapor and goes along with them. Unseen, he casts himself in senses and sense organs with mind, intelligence and ego and their respective attributes. That is the cherished remembrance of Naaraayana for us.
yarhi abjanABa caraNa IshaNayoh uru BaktyA cetah malAni vidhamet guNa karmajAni I
tasmin viSuddha upala Byata Atma tattvam sAkshAt yathA amala drisan savitru prakASah II
yarhi - when, at which time, whenever, while, whereas; abjanABa - ab - from the water, ja - born out of, abja - lotus; nABa - the navel; abjanABa - Naarayana; caraNa - of the feet; IshaNayoh - seeking with desire, by wishing; urhBatyA - abundant devotion; cetah - soul, consciousness, heart; malAni - impurities; guNa karmajAni - guNa - of the three qualities of sattva, rajas and tamas; karmaja - actions in previous lives; viddhamet - blows away, destroys; tasmin - in that destroying of impuritiesl visuddha - purified, established, ascertained; Atma - supreme soul; tattvam - reality, truth; upalaByata - obtained, perceived, known, understood; sakshAt - before the eyes, clearly, manifestly; yathe - in the way as, like; amala - clean, stainless, shining, crystal; drisau - viewing, view, the eye, appearance; savitri - sun, sun before rising; prakASah - lustre, brightness, light;
When the lotus feet of Naaraayana are sought by abundant devotion, the impurities caused by trigunas (sattva, rajas, tamas) and the past and previous actions are destroyed. Then the reality of the Supreme is pereived manifestly like clear eyes seeing the bright light of the sun before rising (Savitri).
Raja uvAca - the king said:
karma yogam vadata nah purushah yena samskritah I
vidhUyah iha Asu karmANi naishkarmyam vindate param II
karmayogam - performance of actions; vadata - says, states, lays down; nah - for us; purushah - people, men, mankind; yena - by which; samskritah - purified, sanctified; vidhyUyah - having given up; iha - here; Asu - quickly, immediately; karamAni - action, performance; naishkarmyAni - action without interest, desire, the state of action without desire; vindate - obtains, discovers, gets, finds; param - the highest;
Performance of actions, religious or worldly, states to mankind that, having given up actions here in this world and purified the highest state of actions without motive or desire is obtained.
evam praSnam RishIn pUrvam priccham piturantike I
na abruvan brahmaNah putrAh tatra kAra Nam ucyatAm II
evam - thus, in this way; praSnam - inquiry, question; RishIn - sages; pUrvam - previously, before; priccham - inquired, asked; pituh - of four faced Brahma; antike - proximate, near, in the presence of; na - not; abruvan - spoke about, say; brahmaNah - of Brahma (four faced); putrAh - sons; Brahmanah putrAh - Sanaka and others; tatra - there; kAraNam - origin, means, reason, cause; ucyatAm - to say;
I once asked the sages in the presence of the sons of the four faced Brahma, including Sanaka, but they did not answer my questions.
Avirhotra uvAca - Avirhotra said:
karma akarma vikarma iti veda vAdo na laukikah I
vedasya ca Iswara AtmatvAt tatra muhyanti sUrayah II
karma - action, deed; akarma - improper act, crime; vikarma - prohibited action, impious action; iti- thus, in the way; vedavAdah - theory, doctrine of Veda; na - not; laukikah - worldly, mundane, general, common, ordinary; vedasya - of Veda; ca - also; Iswara - of Lord; Atmavat - from supreme soul; tatra - there; nuhyanti - (they) err, be perplexed, be bewildered; sUrayah - learned or wise men, sages;
Actions, proper and improper, as well as prohibited actions as described in the doctrines of the Vedas are extremely difficult for the common person to understand. Even though sages and wise men who have the grace of the Supreme, are often bewildered and mistaken in their understanding.
paroksha vAdah vedah ayam bAlAnAm anuSasanam I
karma mokshAya karmaNi vidhatte hi agadam yathA II
paroksha - secret, unknown; vAdah - doctrine; vedah - Veda; ayam - this; bAlAnAm - for the uneducated; anuSasanam - instruction, precept, rule; karma - action; mokshAya - for freedom, release, liberation, emancipation; karmANi - actions; vidhatte - enjoins, lays down, directs towards; hi - only; agadam; medicine, drug; yathA - as in the case;
These secret doctrines of the Vedas are instructions and rules for those who are ignorant. Actions are for the liberation and freedom. Prescriptions for liberation are laid down like drugs or medicines that should be taken both to cure diseases as well as to maintain good health.
na Acaret yah tu veda uktam svayam ajnah ajita indriyah I
vikarmaNA hi adharmeNa mrityoh mrityum upiti sah II
na - not, Acaret - should do, act, perform; yah - which; tu - indeed; veda - of Veda; uktam - stated, told, said; svayam - by one’s self, by one’s own accord, spontaneously; Ajnah - without understanding, ignorant, not addressed towards the Lord; ajita - unrestrained, uncontrolled, unsubdued mind and senses; indiryah - organs of sense, of knowledge and action which number 25; vikarmaNA - by prohibited action; hi - really; adharmeNa - by unrighteousness; mrityoh - of Kali; mrityum - death; upiti - approaches, obtains; sah - He;
It is stated in the Vedas that one who does not understand, one who is ignorant, one who has no control of mind or sense organs should not act because such actions which are not addressed to the Lord are unrighteous and prohibited, and could cause grief and unhappiness.
Comment : Since the Vedas are the word of God and therefore always right, actions leading towards God are beneficial only by those who are learned and understand them. For those who are ignorant, they can be bad. In a quote from Vishnu Sahasranama, Bhishma says:
Esha me savadharmANAm dharmah adhika tamah matah I
yad BaktyA puNdarIkAksham stavyh arcat narah sadA II
In my judgement, of all the Dharmas or good actions, those which are in praise of and in the service to God by man are the greatest.
veda uktam eva kurANah nih sangah arpitam Iswara I
nyshkarmyAmlaBate siddhim rocana artham Palasrutih II
veda - by the Veda; uktam- stated; eva - only; kurvANah - doing, making, acting as a servant or agent; nihsangah - without worldly attachment; naishkarmyAm - inactivity, detached, disinterested; arpitam - offered, delivered; Isware - in God; laBate - obtains, receives; siddhim - accomplishment, fulfilment, complete attainment, success; rocana - living pleasure, pleasant, satisfaction; artham - for the purpose of; Palasrutih - Palam - object of reward; srutih - sacred knowledge, Vedas:
One should perform acts (karma) as directed by the Vedas with devotion and without attachment (to the results). The object of sacred knowledge is to act with concentration and devotion to the lotus feet of NaaraayaNa.
ya Asu hridaya granthim nirjihIrshu param Atmanah I
vidhinA upacaret devam tatra uktena ca keSavam II
ya - who; Asu - quickly; hridaya - of the heart; granthim - knots, cords of binding th emind or self; nirjihIrshuh - desirous of removing, desire to carry off or seize; paramAtmanah - of the Supreme soul, God, Naarayana; vidhinA - by precepts, by commandments, direction (especially for the performance of a rite given in the Brahmana portion of the Vedas ); upacharet - should serve, perform; devam - the supreme Lord; tatra - doctrines of the Vedas (Brahmanas); uktena - praise, verse, eulogy; ca - indeed, also; keSavam - Naaraayana;
One should take the name of the Supreme Soul, and after quickly removing the knots and cords that entangle the mind, should serve Him according to the precepts of the Vedas and the rules and doctrines enshrined in them.
laBdhvA ca acyagram AcAryam tena sandarSita Agamah I
mahA purusham aByarcet murtyA aBimatyA Atmanah II
laBdhva - having obtained, got; ca - and; avyagram - unconfused, steady, tested for a long time; AcAryam - spiritual guide or teacher who instructs the Vedas and laws of sacrifice and religious rules; tena - by Him; sandarSita - shown, exposed, displayed; Agamah - traditional doctrine or precept; mahApurusham - the supreme soul, Naaraayana ; aByarcet - should worship; murtyA - by the form or fiture, by embodiment, manifestation, incarnation, personification; aBimatyA - one’s desire, loved, imagined; Atmanah - of the supreme soul, Naaraayana;
Having obtained a learned teacher, one should worship the supreme Lord Naaraayana in accordance with the precepts directed by tradition in the form or incarnation one desires.
Suchih sammukha AsInah prANa samyamAna AdiBih I
piNdam samSodhya sanyAsa krita rakshah arcayet harim II
Suchih - pure, clean; sammukha - in front, turned towards, facing; AsInah - having sat down, seated; prANa - breathing; samyamAna - holding together, restrained, controlled; AdiBih - and others following; pindam - the body; samSodhya - having completely purified, having thoroughly cleansed; sanyAsa - complete renunciation of the world and attachments, laying down; krita - having been done; rakshah - protection, care; Arcet - be worshipped; harim - Naaraayana;
One should perform the worship of the lord thus: one should be pure of mind, be seated facing the right direction, control one’s breathing (during pranayama), leave every care behind and seek protection in Him.
arca Adau hridaye va api yathA laBdha upacArakyh I
dravya kshiti Atma lingAni nishpAdya prokshya ca Asanam II
arca - (you) worship; Adau - firstly, at first; hridaye - in the mind, heart, soul; vA - or, and; api - also, moreover, in addition, even; yathA - in whatever way; laBdha - obtained; upacArakyh - practices, services; upacAre - as listed in Tantra Sara; dray - materials, things; kshiti - (earth) perishing, ruin, destruction, end of the world; Atma - of Supreme; lingani - images of God; nishpAdya - having accomplished, having performed; prokhya - having sprinkled upon , consecrated (for sacrifice) ca - and; Asanam - seat;
dravyalingam silAdyam Atmalingam manomayam kshitilingam syandilam (open ground, open unoccupied piece of ground, ground )
At first, perform the worship only in the mind. After consecrating the seat, form the image of God in a place, either in stone (saaligrama) or in the mental form. Worship in the manner of service laid down by tradition. Dravyalingam is the stone, Atmalingam is the mental form and Kshitilingam is the place. This is how the devotee can conceptualize the form that is worshipped.
pAdya AdIn upakalpya atha sannidhAya samAhitah I
hridaya Adi krita nyAsah mUla mantreNa ca arcayet II
pAdyam - water for washing the feet; Adin - others following; upkalpya - having prepared or procured; atha - then; sannidhyA - having placed together, collected; samAhitah - concentrating thoughts in devotion; dridaya - mind; Adi - and others following; krita - having been done; nyAsah - mental assignment of various pasts; mUlamantreNa - by principal or primary or fundamental text; ca - also; arcayet - should worship;
Having arranged the puja saamagri like arghya and padya and others, one should concentrate one’s mind by nyAsa and worship the Lord by mula mantra (the basic text), choosing one such as ‘Om Namo Naaraayana’ or ‘Om NamassivAya’.
sa anga upAngAm sapArshadAm tAm tAm mUrtinsvmantratah I
pAdya arghyA AcamanIya Adyh snAnavAsah viBUshaNyh II
sAnga - with Vedas; upAnga - Braahmana and Upanishads; sarshadAm - with attendants and companions; tAm tAm - each and every; mUrti - images; sva mantratah - by their respective mantras; Acamaniya - water to be sipped in hand from palm; Adyh - others following; snAna - bathing; vAsah - cloth; viBUshanyh - by ornaments;
We should worship according to Vedic texts following the mantras with arghya, pAdyAs, Acamana, cloth and ornaments (which constitute the articles of worship).
gandha mAlya akshata sragBih DhUpa DIpa upaharakyh I
sAngam sampUjya vidhivat stavyh stutvA namet harim II
gandha - pounded sandalwood; mAlya - garlands of flowers; akshata - unhusked barley or unbroken rice mixed with vermilion; srigBih - by (mantra or sacred texts) flowers; dhUpa - aromatic vapor or smoke proceeding from gum or resin; dIpa - light, lamp; upaharakyh - by oblations, gift, present; sAngam - with Vedas, with all the body parts; sampUjya - having performed the puja or worship; vidhivat - as prescribed, as per rules; stavya - praise; stotra - hymns in praise, verses or texts which are sung or recited; namet - should bow down; harim - Naaraayna;
AtmAnam - one’s self; tanmayAm - wholly absorbed in that, becoming one that; dhyAyan - meditating upon,thinking about; mUrtim - idol or image; sampUjayet - should worship; harim - Naaraayana - sesham - anything left out, remaining; AdhAya - prayig for, meditating on; sirsi - on the head; svadhAmni - one’s dwelling place; udvasya - having left out; satkritam - hospitality;
The Lord should be worshipped absorbing one’s self fully in the chosen form taking the remainder on to the head and others left in their respective places.
evam agni arkatoyat Avarcayat hridaye ca yah I
yagneswaram svamAtmAnam aciran mucyate hi sah II
evam - in this way; by fire, sun and water; avarcayat - cause to be shining, causing to be bright (image or form); in heart or self, also, who; yangeswaram - Lord Naaraayana; svAtmAnam - one’s own self; aciram - before long; mucyate - liberated; hi - truly; sah - He, Naaraayana.
Thus who should be worshipped in mind by fire, sun and water, the Lord Naaraayana liberates him truly soon.
End of Chapter 3 of 11th Canto